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An abstract is a self-contained short and powerful statement that describes a larger body of work. The respective components that needs to be included may vary according to discipline. An abstract of a scientific work preferably needs to contain brief but informative information about the background, purpose (aim of the study), materials and methods used, results and conclusion. Word limit, including title and author details) is 550.


PLEASE NOTE: An abstract is not a review, nor does it evaluate the work being abstracted. While it contains key words found in the larger work, the abstract should be an original document rather than an excerpt from the large body of work.


You can use the form below to submit your abstracts or send them manually as described below:


Generic abstract template


TITLE OF ABSTRACT (Font: Calibri, uppercase, bold and size 14, centered)

[1 X space]

Authors (Font Calibri, sentence case, bold and size 12, centered; affiliations indicated with superscripts)

Affiliations (Font Calibri, sentence case, regular and size 10, centered)

#Corresponding author: person xxxx (Font Calibri, sentence case, regular and size 10, centered)

[2 X space]

Background: continue with text.

[1 X space]

Aim: continue with text.

[1 X space]

Methodologies:  continue with text.

[1 X space]

Results: continue with text.

[1 X space]

Discussion: continue with text.

[1 X space]

Conclusions and recommendations:  continue with text.



For an example of an abstract, please refer to the example below.




C.J.C. Muller 1#, J.P. Potgieter 2, S.W.P. Cloete 1,2 & J.A. Botha 1

1Western Cape Department of Agriculture, Research and Technology Development Services, Directorate Animal Sciences, Private bag X1, Elsenburg 7607, South Africa; 2Department of Animal Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch 7600, South Africa

#Corresponding author:



Background: The fertility in dairy cows is a major issue as several studies indicate declines in the reproductive performance of dairy cows over the previous 20 years. An earlier short-term study comparing Holstein (H) and Jersey (J) primiparous cows showed breed differences regarding feed intake, milk yield and production efficiency.


Aim (-s): In this paper, the reproductive performance of H (n=128) and J (n=103) heifers and lactating cows are presented.


Methodologies: Cows were on kikuyu pasture supplemented during winter with a pasture replacement mixture consisting of lucerne and oat hay and soy bean oil cake meal. All cows received the same concentrate mixture after milking at 7 kg per cow per day. Insemination records of all cows and heifers were recorded and fertility parameters estimated following pregnancy check results.


Results: Jersey heifers were inseminated earlier (P<0.05) than H heifers, i.e. 15.4±2.1 and 16.1±2.3 months of age, respectively. This resulted in more (P<0.05) J heifers being inseminated for the first time by 15 months of age. Means±sd for interval traits calving to first service (CFS), first service within 80 days post-partum (FS<80d), and cows confirmed pregnant within 100 days post-partum (PD100d) for H and J cows were 88±26 and 78±29 days (P<0.01), 0.44 and 0.62 (P<0.01) and 0.31 and 0.51 (P<0.05) respectively. The interval from calving to conception differed (P<0.05) between breeds being 119±61 and 138±62 for J and H cows respectively. Lactation number affected reproduction traits with CFS and days open intervals increased (P<0.05) from first tot sixth lactation. The proportion of cows inseminated for the first time within 80 days post-partum and confirmed pregnant by 100 days post-partum declined with increasing lactation number.


Discussion: Results are in agreement with other studies showing a higher conception rate in J cows in comparison to H cows. The poorer reproductive performance of H could be attributed to a greater potential for milk production.


Conclusion/recommendations: Further studies are envisaged comparing the production performance and effeciency of H and J cows under this feeding system.


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